The “Polluter Pays Principle” (PPP) was first introduced in 1972 by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guiding Principles concerning International Economic Aspects of Environmental policies where the polluter is going to be held responsible for the environmental damage and pollution it may cause. It is based on an age-old adage of “cleaning your own mess”. For instance, a factory that produces a potentially poisonous substance as a by-product of its activities is usually held responsible for its safe disposal.
An electric vehicle, also called an EV, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery, solar panels or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity. EVs include, but are not limited to, road and rail vehicles, surface and underwater vessels, electric aircraft and electric spacecraft.
Coal is the most harmful fossil fuel in terms of carbon emissions, as well as in air pollutants that cause severe health impacts. It is a dominant source of energy globally, however, because it is relatively inexpensive to mine and transport.